In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity.

     It having pleased the Divine Providence to dispose the hearts 
of the most serene and most potent Prince George the Third, by 
the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, 
defender of the faith, duke of Brunswick and Lunebourg, arch-
treasurer and prince elector of the Holy Roman Empire etc., and 
of the United States of America, to forget all past misunderstandings 
and differences that have unhappily interrupted the good 
correspondence and friendship which they mutually wish to restore, 
and to establish such a beneficial and satisfactory intercourse , 
between the two countries upon the ground of reciprocal advantages 
and mutual convenience as may promote and secure to both perpetual 
peace and harmony; and having for this desirable end already laid 
the foundation of peace and reconciliation by the Provisional 
Articles signed at Paris on the 30th of November 1782, by the 
commissioners empowered on each part, which articles were agreed 
to be inserted in and constitute the Treaty of Peace proposed to 
be concluded between the Crown of Great Britain and the said United 
States, but which treaty was not to be concluded until terms of 
peace should be agreed upon between Great Britain and France and 
his Britannic Majesty should be ready to conclude such treaty 
accordingly; and the treaty between Great Britain and France 
having since been concluded, his Britannic Majesty and the United 
States of America, in order to carry into full effect the 
Provisional Articles above mentioned, according to the tenor 
thereof, have constituted and appointed, that is to say his 
Britannic Majesty on his part, David Hartley, Esqr., member of 
the Parliament of Great Britain, and the said United States on 
their part, John Adams, Esqr., late a commissioner of the United 
States of America at the court of Versailles, late delegate in 
Congress from the state of Massachusetts, and chief justice of 
the said state, and minister plenipotentiary of the said United 
States to their high mightinesses the States General of the 
United Netherlands; Benjamin Franklin, Esqr., late delegate in 
Congress from the state of Pennsylvania, president of the 
convention of the said state, and minister plenipotentiary from 
the United States of America at the court of Versailles; John 
Jay, Esqr., late president of Congress and chief justice of the 
state of New York, and minister plenipotentiary from the said 
United States at the court of Madrid; to be plenipotentiaries 
for the concluding and signing the present definitive treaty; 
who after having reciprocally communicated their respective 
full powers have agreed upon and confirmed the following articles.

Article 1:

     His Brittanic Majesty acknowledges the said United States, 
viz., New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina 
and Georgia, to be free sovereign and independent states, that 
he treats with them as such, and for himself, his heirs, and 
successors, relinquishes all claims to the government, propriety, 
and territorial rights of the same and every part thereof.

Article 2:

     And that all disputes which might arise in future on the 
subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be 
prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following 
are and shall be their boundaries, viz.; from the northwest 
angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that nagle which is formed by a line 
drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the 
highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers 
that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those 
which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the northwesternmost head 
of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that river 
to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude; from thence by a 
line due west on said latitude until it strikes the river 
Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of said river 
into Lake Ontario; through the middle of said lake until it 
strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake 
Erie; thence along the middle of said communication into Lake 
Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the 
water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence 
along the middle of said water communication into Lake Huron, 
thence through the middle of said lake to the water communication 
between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior 
northward of the Isles Royal and Phelipeaux to the Long Lake; 
thence through the middle of said Long Lake and the water 
communication between it and the Lake of the Woods, to the said 
Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most 
northwesternmost point thereof, and from thence on a due west 
course to the river Mississippi; thence by a line to be drawn 
along the middle of the said river Mississippi until it shall 
intersect the northernmost part of the thirty-first degree of 
north latitude, South, by a line to be drawn due east from the 
determination of the line last mentioned in the latitude of 
thirty-one degrees of the equator, to the middle of the river 
Apalachicola or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to 
its junction with the Flint River, thence straight to the head 
of Saint Mary's River; and thence down along the middle of Saint 
Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn 
along the middle of the river Saint Croix, from its mouth in the 
Bay of Fundy to its source, and from its source directly north 
to the aforesaid highlands which divide the rivers that fall 
into the Atlantic Ocean from those which fall into the river 
Saint Lawrence; comprehending all islands within twenty leagues 
of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying 
between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the 
aforesaid boundaries between Nova Scotia on the one part and 
East Florida on the other shall, respectively, touch the Bay 
of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now 
are or heretofore have been within the limits of the said 
province of Nova Scotia.

Article 3:

     It is agreed that the people of the United States shall 
continue to enjoy unmolested the right to take fish of every 
kind on the Grand Bank and on all the other banks of Newfoundland, 
also in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and at all other places in 
the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any 
time heretofore to fish.  And also that the inhabitants of the 
United States shall have liberty to take fish of every kind on 
such part of the coast of Newfoundland as British fishermen shall 
use, (but not to dry or cure the same on that island) and also 
on the coasts, bays and creeks of all other of his Brittanic 
Majesty's dominions in America; and that the American fishermen 
shall have liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the unsettled 
bays, harbors, and creeks of Nova Scotia, Magdalen Islands, and 
Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled, but so soon 
as the same or either of them shall be settled, it shall not be 
lawful for the said fishermen to dry or cure fish at such 
settlement without a previous agreement for that purpose with 
the inhabitants, proprietors, or possessors of the ground.

Article 4:

     It is agreed that creditors on either side shall meet with 
no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling 
money of all bona fide debts heretofore contracted.

Article 5:

     It is agreed that Congress shall earnestly recommend it to 
the legislatures of the respective states to provide for the 
restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have 
been confiscated belonging to real British subjects; and also 
of the estates, rights, and properties of persons resident in 
districts in the possession on his Majesty's arms and who have 
not borne arms against the said United States.  And that persons 
of any other decription shall have free liberty to go to any part 
or parts of any of the thirteen United States and therein to 
remain twelve months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain the 
restitution of such of their estates, rights, and properties as 
may have been confiscated; and that Congress shall also earnestly 
recommend to the several states a reconsideration and revision 
of all acts or laws regarding the premises, so as to render the 
said laws or acts perfectly consistent not only with justice and 
equity but with that spirit of conciliation which on the return 
of the blessings of peace should universally prevail.  And that 
Congress shall also earnestly recommend to the several states 
that the estates, rights, and properties, of such last mentioned 
persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any persons 
who may be now in possession the bona fide price (where any has 
been given) which such persons may have paid on purchasing any 
of the said lands, rights, or properties since the confiscation.

     And it is agreed that all persons who have any interest in 
confiscated lands, either by debts, marriage settlements, or 
otherwise, shall meet with no lawful impediment in the prosecution 
of their just rights.

Article 6:

     That there shall be no future confiscations made nor any 
prosecutions commenced against any person or persons for, or by 
reason of, the part which he or they may have taken in the present 
war, and that no person shall on that account suffer any future 
loss or damage, either in his person, liberty, or property; and 
that those who may be in confinement on such charges at the time 
of the ratification of the treaty in America shall be immediately 
set at liberty, and the prosecutions so commenced be discontinued.

Article 7:

     There shall be a firm and perpetual peace between his 
Brittanic Majesty and the said states, and between the subjects 
of the one and the citizens of the other, wherefore all hostilities 
both by sea and land shall from henceforth cease.  All prisoners 
on both sides shall be set at liberty, and his Brittanic Majesty 
shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any 
destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of 
the American inhabitants, withdraw all his armies, garrisons, and 
fleets from the said United States, and from every post, place, 
and harbor within the same; leaving in all fortifications, the 
American artilery that may be therein; and shall also order and 
cause all archives, records, deeds, and papers belonging to any 
of the said states, or their citizens, which in the course of 
the war may have fallen into the hands of his officers, to be 
forthwith restored and delivered to the proper states and 
persons to whom they belong.

Article 8:

     The navigation of the river Mississippi, from its source 
to the ocean, shall forever remain free and open to the subjects 
of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States.

Article 9:

     In case it should so happen that any place or territory 
belonging to Great Britain or to the United States should have 
been conquered by the arms of either from the other before the 
arrival of the said Provisional Articles in America, it is 
agreed that the same shall be restored without difficulty and 
without requiring any compensation.

Article 10:

     The solemn ratifications of the present treaty expedited in 
good and due form shall be exchanged between the contracting 
parties in the space of six months or sooner, if possible, to 
be computed from the day of the signatures of the present treaty.  
In witness whereof we the undersigned, their ministers 
plenipotentiary, have in their name and in virtue of our full 
powers, signed with our hands the present definitive treaty and 
caused the seals of our arms to be affixed thereto.

     Done at Paris, this third day of September in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.


Source: United States, Department of State, "Treaties and Other 
International Agreements of the United States of America, 
1776-1949", vol 12, pp8-12


The Peace Treaty of 1783, also known as The Paris Peace Treaty, 
ended the United States War for Independence.  Representing 
England was Richard Oswald, chief negotiator under the Earl of 
Shelburne, the Secretary of State; signing for Britain was David 
Hartley.  Representing the United States of America were John 
Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, all of whom signed the treaty.

This treaty gave formal recognition to the United States of America, 
established her boundaries, (at the time), secured certain fishing 
rights, addressed problems between creditors, provided fair treatment 
for those who decided to remain loyal to Great Britain, and opened up 
the Mississippi River to navigation by citizens of both signatory 


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